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Tutorials are listed in chronological order.


Tutorials are listed by year in chronological order.

  • Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems (C. E. Shannon) Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 28(4), page 656–715, 1949.
  • Breaking substitution ciphers using a relaxation algorithm (Shmuel Peleg and Azriel Rosenfeld.) Comm. ACM, 22(11):598–605. 1979
  • A Computational Approach to Deciphering Unknown Scripts (K. Knight and K. Yamada) Proceedings of the ACL Workshop on Unsupervised Learning in Natural Language Processing, 1999
  • Language Independent Named Entity Recognition Combining Morphological and Contextual Evidence (S. Cucerzan and D. Yarowsky) EMNLP/VLC 1999
  • Language independent minimally supervised induction of lexical probabilities (S. Cucerzan and D. Yarowsky) ACL 2000
  • Unsupervised Analysis for Decipherment Problems (K. Knight and A. Nair and N. Rathod and K. Yamada) ACL-COLING 2006
  • Weakly supervised named entity transliteration and discovery from multilingual comparable corpora (Alexandre Klementiev and Dan Roth) ACL-COLING 2006
  • Robust dictionary attack of short simple substitution ciphers (Edwin Olson.) Cryptologia, 31(4):332–342. 2007.
  • Unsupervised Multilingual Learning for POS Tagging (Benjamin Snyder and Tahira Naseem and Jacob Eisenstein and Regina Barzilay) EMNLP 2008
  • Cross-lingual Propagation for Morphological Analysis (Benjamin Snyder and Regina Barzilay) AAAI 2008
  • Unsupervised Multilingual Learning for Morphological Segmentation (Benjamin Snyder and Regina Barzilay) ACL 2008
  • Adding More Languages Improves Unsupervised Multilingual Part-of-Speech Tagging: A Bayesian Non-Parametric Approach (Benjamin Snyder and Tahira Naseem and Jacob Eisenstein and Regina Barzilay) NAACL 2009
  • Attacking Decipherment Problems Optimally with Low-Order N-gram Models (S. Ravi and K. Knight) Cryptologia, 33(4), pp. 321-334, 2009
  • Unsupervised Multilingual Learning for Part-of-Speech Tagging (Tahira Naseem and Benjamin Snyder and Jacob Eisenstein and Regina Barzilay) Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 36, 2009.
  • Probabilistic Methods for a Japanese Syllable Cipher (S. Ravi and K. Knight) ICCPOL 2009
  • An Exact A* Method for Deciphering Letter-Substitution Ciphers (E. Corlett and G. Penn) ACL 2010
  • Climbing the Tower of Babel: Unsupervised Multilingual Learning (Benjamin Snyder and Regina Barzilay) ICML 2010
  • A Statistical Model for Lost Language Decipherment (B. Snyder and R. Barzilay and K. Knight) ACL 2010
  • Simple Effective Decipherment via Combinatorial Optimization (T. Berg-Kirkpatrick and D. Klein) EMNLP 2011
  • Deciphering Foreign Language (S. Ravi and K. Knight) ACL 2011
  • Bayesian Inference for Zodiac and Other Homophonic Ciphers (S. Ravi and K. Knight) ACL 2011
  • Unsupervised Discovery of Rhyme Schemes (S. Reddy and K. Knight) ACL 2011
  • What We Know About the Voynich Manuscript (S. Reddy and K. Knight) ACL 2011 Workshop on Language Technology for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, and Humanities (LaTeCH)
  • The Copiale Cipher (K. Knight and B. Megyesi and C. Schaefer) Invited talk at ACL 2011 Workshop on Building and Using Comparable Corpora (BUCC)
  • Deciphering Foreign Language by Combining Language Models and Context Vectors (M. Nuhn and A. Mauser and H. Ney) ACL 2012
  • Large Scale Decipherment for Out-of-Domain Machine Translation (Qing Dou and Kevin Knight) EMNLP 2012
  • Decoding Running Key Ciphers (Sravana Reddy and Kevin Knight) short paper. ACL 2012
  • The Secrets of the Copiale Cipher (K. Knight and B. Megyesi and C. Schaefer) Journal of Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism, 2(2), 2012.
  • Corpora of Non-Linguistic Symbol Systems (Katherine Wu and Jennifer Solman and Ruth Linehan and Richard Sproat) Linguistic Society of America, Portland, OR, January 2012.
  • Universal Grapheme to Phoneme Prediction over Latin Alphabets (Young-Bum Kim and Benjamin Snyder) EMNLP 2012
  • Dependency-Based Decipherment for Resource-Limited Machine Translation (Qing Dou and Kevin Knight) EMNLP 2013
  • Decipherment Complexity in 1:1 Substitution Ciphers (M. Nuhn, and H. Ney) ACL 2013
  • Beam Search for Solving Substitution Ciphers (M. Nuhn, J. Schamper, and H. Ney) ACL 2013
  • Scalable decipherment for machine translation via hash sampling (S. Ravi) ACL 2013
  • Unsupervised Consonant-Vowel Prediction over Hundreds of Languages (Y. Kim and B. Snyder) ACL 2013
  • Decipherment with a Million Random Restarts (Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick and Dan Klein) EMNLP 2013
  • Practical Linguistic Steganography using Contextual Synonym Substitution and a Novel Vertex Coding Method (Ching-Yun Chang and Stephen Clark) Computational Linguistics, 40(2), pp.403-448, 2014
  • Beyond Parallel Data: Joint Word Alignment and Decipherment Improves Machine Translation (Qing Dou and Ashish Vaswani and Kevin Knight) EMNLP 2014
  • Cipher Type Detection (Malte Nuhn and Kevin Knight) EMNLP 2014
  • EM Decipherment for Large Vocabularies (Malte Nuhn and Hermann Ney) ACL 2014
  • A Statistical Comparison of Written Language and Nonlinguistic Symbol Systems (Richard Sproat) Language, vol. 90(2), 457-481, June 2014.
  • Solving Substitution Ciphers with Combined Language Models (Bradley Hauer and Ryan Hayward and Greg Kondrak)


Books are are listed in no particular order.

  • A Computational Theory of Writing Systems (Richard Sproat)
  • Reading in the Brain: The New Science of How We Read (Stanislas Dehaene)
  • Number words and numbers symbols: A cultural history of numbers (Karl Menninger)
  • Empires of the Word: A Language History of the World (Nicholas Ostler)
  • Lost Languages: The enigma of the world's undeciphered scripts (Andrew Robinson)
  • Cracking the Egyptian Code: The Revolutionary Life of Jean-Francois Champollion (Andrew Robinson)
  • The eater's guide to Chinese characters (James D. McCawley)
  • Breaking the Maya Code (Third Edition) (Michael D. Coe)
  • Reading the Maya glyphs (Michael D. Coe and Mark Van Stone)
  • How to read Maya Hieroglyphs (John Montgomery)
  • Dictionary of Maya Hieroglyphs (John Montgomery)
  • Understanding Maya Inscriptions (John F. Harris and Stephen K. Stearns)
  • The Voynich manuscript -- An Elegant Enigma (Mary D'Imperio)
  • The Riddle of the Labyrinth: The Quest to Crack an Ancient Code (Margalit Fox)
  • The decipherment of Linear B (John Chadwick)
  • The disk from Phaistos (Victor J. Kean)